This is the Glossary from the book, The Flags of Canada, by Alistair B. Fraser.
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1010About this time, Thorfinn Karlsefni, the son of the famous Leif, used a white "emblem" to show peaceful intentions and a red one to indicate war (against the Skraellings). These emblems may have been painted shields, but were likely flags. A Skraelling would turned a piece of wood on his head in one of two directions to indicated good or bad intentions. The Skraellings told Karlsefni that in the hinterland people lived who attached fabric to portable poles. (Thorfinn Karlsefni Saga)
1165First reference to the use by Scotland of the Cross of St. Andrew. The reference claims that its use goes back to King Hungus in the eighth century. The choice of blue for the field evolved only later.
1277First reference to the English use of the Cross of St. George as a flag.
1497John Cabot took possession of the northeast coast of North America on Saint John the Baptist Day, and raised the royal standard. There is no evidence that he raised the Saint George's cross as is often claimed.
1534When Jacques Cartier landed at Gaspe he planted a cross bearing the Royal Arms of France, a blue shield with three golden fleurs-de-lis, but there is no evidence that he used a flag, as is often claimed.
1557In his voyage to (what is now) Frobisher Bay, Sir Martin Frobisher carried St. George's cross with a quartered shield of arms in the centre. First and fourth quarter were French modern, while the second and third quarters each contained two English lions.
1574Ensigns, to be flown at the stern of a ship, were introduced at sea about this time so individual ships could be recognized. In the early ensigns, the field was often multi-coloured strips with St. George's or St. Andrew's cross in the canton depending on whether used by English or Scottish vessels.
1606 Apr 12The first, two-crossed, Union Flag is introduced.
1612Champlain flew a white cross (on a blue field?) on his ship in the form of both a rectangular flag and swallowtail pennant. (Illustrated on a Map published in 1612.)
1613Champlain flew a swallowtail pennant bearing three fleurs-de-lis on the Abitation de Québec. (Drawing published 1613.)
1621The first red ensign was made and it began to be used by both the King's ships and merchantmen. By 1633 the striped ensigns had been abandoned and Red, Blue and White ensigns were used by the English fleet to denote the three different squadrons.
1621The first use of the two-crossed Union Flag in what is now Canada with the British settlement in Nova Scotia.
1625Nova Scotia granted arms shortly before this date. The grant indicated that the arms could be used on a banner.
1638 Jan 1Newfoundland is granted arms. (old calendar 1637 Jan 1)
1649Union flag gives way to Cromwell's Commonwealth Ensign.
1656French troops arrived in New France and placed the white flag on forts they built. This was the first known use of the white flag on land in Canada, but it was the major flag to be used until the end of the French Régime. It had been seen on naval ships at Québec as early as 1632.
1674 Sep 18The red ensign is specified as the proper flag for a merchant ship. It continued to be used by a Naval Squadron until 1864. The canton contains either the Cross of St. George or St. Andrew, but not the Union Flag.
1694 Jul 12Vessels in the non-military branches of the King's service were to use a red ensign with a badge of the department on the fly. Before this time no distinction in flags was made between the navy's ships of war and vessels in the civil departments of the navy or other branches of the king's service. The colour of these state ensigns was changed to blue in 1864. (Wilson)
1700sThe maple leaf seems to have been considered as an emblem along the St. Lawrence by this time.
1707 Mar 17Queen Ann restores the first Union flag which now replaces St. George's Cross as the flag of England. << rewrite
1707 Jul 28The red ensign alone is proclaimed the National Ensign, and all merchant ships were expressly ordered to wear it. The White and Blue Ensigns were looked upon as mere variants for the purposes of naval tactics.
1738La Vérendrye entered one of the western forts preceded by a white "pavillon" painted with the Arms of France.
1758The date legend assigns to the use of the Drapeau de Carillon.
1760The white flag lowered over Québec and replaced by the two-crossed Jack.
1769A Great Seal granted to Prince Edward Island by King George III. It is from this seal that the unofficial arms used until 1905 were extracted.
1778Earliest record of the use of the church pennant, although tradition holds that it was first used during the Anglo-Dutch wars (17th century) to indicate a truce during services. It is in use to this day.
1779Hudson's Bay Company Governor's Standard in use by this date. It is still used as the house flag of the Company.
1801 Jan 1George III initiates the present Union Flag
1804 Aug 23The earliest mention of the North West Company ensign occurs when an H.B.C. man reports it flying at Fort St. Andrews, Charlton Island, James Bay. (HBC Archives, A.31/1 fo.36d.)
1813 Apr 13 The Royal Standard that flew in York in front of the Parliament House of Upper Canada is captured by the Americans. The flag can still be seen in the Museum of United States Naval Academy at Annapolis Maryland.
1818 May 25 The earliest mention of the Hudson's Bay Company ensign occurs when two are shipped from London for use at York Factory. (HBC Archives, A.24/32, p.10)
1832The Patriotes adopted the green-white-red horizontal tricolour.
1834Société St-Jean-Baptiste adopts the maple leaf as a symbol. Speaking to the members of the Society in Montréal, Jacques Viger said: "This tree-the maple-which grows in our valleys ... at first young and beaten by the storm, pines away, painfully feeding itself upon the earth. But it soon springs up, tall and strong, and faces the tempest and triumphs over the wind which cannot shake it any more. The maple is the king of our forest; it is the symbol of the Canadian people."
1836 Nov 14Maple leaves formed the new heading of Le Canadien. In his commentary, its editor, &EACUTE;tienne Parent, offered the maple leaf as the symbol for all Québécois.
1837First appearance of a maple leaf on a flag, Le drapeau de Saint-Eustache. The flag was prepared by the Patriots for the demonstrations at St-Scholastique and used later at the battles of St-Eustache and St-Benoit. It was carried at the engagements of lac des Deux-Montagnes. The monogram on it, J-Bte is said to mean "Canada for the Canadians."
1837 June 1Papineau in parade lead by a "drapeau vert-blanc-rouge orné d'un castor, d'une feuille d'érable et d'un maskinongé."
1837 Dec 14Battle of Saint-Eustach. Flag carried.
1838-A Durham flag (of unknown appearance) was used by Durham Clubs in Upper Canada to show their support for the recommendations in the Durham Report. (Callwood, p.136)
1840?The maple leaf was borne on the banners of the Loyal Canadian society at the dedication of the Brock monument at Queenston Heights.
1840sBishop Fleming establishes the Newfoundland tricolour of pink, white, and green in an attempt to palliate ethnic and religious rivalry. The flag was used extensively on land and sea until 1911, but only occasionally after that when it was largely supplanted by the Terra Nova ensign authorized in 1904.
1848The Drapeau de Carillon carried in the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day parade in Québec (?). It had been retrieved from the possession of Brother Louis by Louis de Gonzague Baillairgé
1848The literary annual, Maple Leaf,referred to the maple leaf as the chosen emblem of Canada.
1853Alliance of Britain and France against Russia in Crimean War. This lead to the acceptance of the French tricolour in Quebec and it began to be considered the flag of the French-Canadians.
1853Susannah Moodie wrote in praise of the maple leaf (possibly in Life in the clearings versus the bush,London 1853).
1855Newfoundland becomes a self-governing colony.
1855The frigate La Capricieuse became the first French naval vessel to sail up the St. Lawrence since the defeat in 1760. It was greeted by the students of the Seminary of Québec with a flag bearing fleurs-de-lis.
1859 Jan 10The colours of the Royal Canadian Regiment (100th) were presented by the Prince of Wales (later to become King Edward VII). They bear three clusters of three maple leaves. It is likely the first flag of anglophone Canadians to bear maple leaves. (Holmes, 1897 p.86f)
1860 Aug 31During the visit of the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, a public gathering in St. Lawrence Hall in Toronto urged the wearing of the maple leaf. The following motion, put forward by James H. Richardson, was adopted: "Resolved: that all Native Canadians joining in the procession, whether identified with the National Societies or not, should wear the maple leaf as the emblem of the land of their birth." Further, ladies wore the maple leaf badge at the great ball given in the Prince's honour, and the Prince's table bore a setting decorated with wreaths of maple leaves surmounted by a crown.
1864 Jul 9The red ensign ceases to be a naval and state flag and so is for use only as the flag of the merchantmen (which includes yachts and other pleasure craft). The white ensign becomes solely the ensign of the Royal Navy. The blue ensign that of the recently formed Royal Naval Reserve, whereas the defaced blue ensign takes over the previous job of the defaced red ensign as the regulation colour for vessels employed in th service of any public office (state ensign) in the U.K. Also, these state vessels were to use the white bordered Union (merchant jack) as a jack, but this was changed in 1868. (Wilson)
1865A blue ensign with a colonial badge on the fly was authorized by the Colonial Defence Act for colonial navies, but Canada had neither a navy or a badge. See 1868 Dec 16 for state use.
1865 Aug 15The flag of the Acadians is adopted.
1867 Jul 1Confederation of the first four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
1867 Oct ?Alexander Muir wroteThe Maple Leaf Forever.
1868 May 26The founding four provinces were granted arms. It is these arms that form the basis of the Canadian badge (often erroneously called the Canadian Arms) which was approved for use on the Governor's General flag and the Canadian Blue Ensign in 1870. The arms granted to Nova Scotia were markedly different from the original ones (1625) which had apparently been forgotten. It is significant that the maple leaf was incorporated into the arms of both Ontario and Quebec.
1868 Dec 16Colonial Secretary notifies the Governor General that colonial government ships "shall use the blue ensign with the seal or badge of the Colony in the fly thereof." (Ewart 1907)
1868 May 26Arms granted by Queen Victoria.
1868Vessels in public service to use the blue ensign, defaced with a departmental badge, as a jack (replaces merchant jack) as well as an ensign. The jack was sometimes square. (Wilson 1986, p.40)
1869 Jul 31The Lords Commissioners of Admiralty proposed to the Queen the creation of flags for Governors. See below.
1869Aug 7Queen Victoria authorized the "Governors of all ranks and denominations administering Governments of British Colonies and Dependencies to fly the Union Jack with the Arms or badge of the Colony emblazoned on the centre thereof." This prompted the proposals of 1870 Feb 28.
1870 Feb 26The Canadian Illustrated News (p.265) shows a (red?) ensign flying over the Victoria Tower of the Parliament Buildings. It has been argued that a shaded area on the fly is meant to represent a badge, but this is doubtful as before the date that four-province badge had even been proposed by the Governor General.
1870 Feb 28The Governor General (Sir John Young, Bt.) in council approved the proposed designs of the vice regal flags for the Governor General and the four lieutenant-governors, as well that for the Canadian Blue Ensign.
1870 Jul 15Manitoba joins confederation. A five-province ensign, though now possible, must await the creation of some symbol for the new province. Manitoba was not granted arms until 1905, so its badge was based on its great seal, the design of which was decided upon 1870 Aug 2.
1870 Jul 16The designs proposed in 1870 Feb 28 are approved by Lord Kimberly, Secretary of State for the Colonies. This date marks the creation of the first official, and distinctively Canadian flags. They are the flag of the Governor General, and the Canadian Blue Ensign. These both served to introduce the four-province badge. Further, the wreath and crown of the G-G's flag was copied informally on the Canadian Red Ensigns.
1870 Aug 2Manitoba's great seal was approved by the Privy Council in Ottawa. (The seal itself was shipped to the new province on Aug 29.) The design was used to represent Manitoba on the five-province badge used informally on Canadian Red Ensigns. All of these informal five-province red ensigns also included the motif of the wreath and crown from the flag of the Governor General, but none showed the beaver that was ubiquitous on the seven-province ensigns.
1871 May 6The Canadian Illustrated News illustrated (p.281) and discussed what it offered as "the true nature and character of the flags assigned to the Dominion." Presented are erroneous drawings and discussions of five vice regal flags and the red and blue ensigns. Of interest is the presumed use at this time of the red ensign with a Canadian badge. Further, it claims that only the shields of the four provinces are used at present, "but it is reasonable to expect that they will before long be supplemented by the shields of Manitoba and British Columbia." Flag manufacturers produced a number of flags based on the erroneous illustrations.
1871 Jun 20British Columbia joins confederation so that a six-province ensign is now possible. However as far as is known, no such ensigns were ever produced.
1872 Mar 2The Canadian Illustrated News (p.136) publishes (what is probably) the first unambiguous illustration of a public display of a Canadian (red?) ensign. The occasion was the Grand Fancy Ball at the Skating Rink, Saint John, New Brunswick held in February 1872. The badge displays a wreath and crown, and appears to be identical to the fanciful ensign illustrated in 1871 May 6.
1873 Jul 1Prince Edward Island joins confederation so that a seven-province ensign is now possible. Neither of the latest two provinces have been granted arms; the motif adopted for P.E.I. is from its great seal, and the one for B.C. is apparently adopted from a pattern used by its lieutenant-governor.
1874 May 22As a result of a request initiated by Sir John A. Macdonald for Canadian merchant vessels to fly the Canadian Red Ensign, the admiralty at first made no objection. In their note of this date to the Colonial Office they said "no objection would be raised to any vessel registered as belonging to one of Her Majesty's Colonies flying the red ensign with the badge of the Colony in the fly."
1875 Jul 25The Admiralty reversed the decision of 1874 May 22 and indicated to the Colonial Secretary that the only proper flag for the colonial mercantile marine was "the red ensign without any badge." Ship owners took little notice of this inhibition, and apparently Sir John A. Macdonald ignored it too as he had the Canadian Red Ensign hoisted over the parliament buildings in Ottawa.
1885 May 9The Red Cross flag first flown in Canada by Surgeon-Major George S. Ryerson at the battle of Batoche.
1889 Oct 3In the face of continued use of the Canadian Red Ensign, an Imperial statute was passed which declared that the "proper national colours for all ships and boats belonging to any subject of Her Majesty ... [was] the red ensign usually worn by merchant ships without any defacement or modifications whatsoever." However it did allow that there would "be no objection to colonial merchant vessels carrying distinguishing flags with the badge of the colony thereon in addition to the red ensign." While a step in the right direction, this was the independent use of the flag that Canada wanted.
1890 Jun 30Canada applied "for the issue of a general warrant which will permit Canadian registered ships to fly the red ensign usually worn by merchant ships with the Canadian coat of arms."
1890 Oct 31This met with objections in Britain, so the Canadian Government passed an order-in-council in support of the application of June 30th and then on-
1890 Nov 13Sir Charles Tupper, the Canadian Minister of Marine and Fisheries, wrote to the Governor General, Lord Stanley, saying that "Since about 1869 our ships have been encouraged by the Government of Canada to use the red ensign with the Canadian coat of arms in the fly.... These ships are in every quarter of the globe."
1890William Chapman published his volume of poems, Les feuilles d'Erable.
1891 Nov 7A measure of the emotion that the issue of the authorization of the flag engendered in Canada can be seen by the letter sent by Vice Admiral Watson (stationed at Halifax) to the Governor General: "I have read with much interest the correspondence relating to the Canadian flag. It will certainly be a great pity if the Home Government insist on its abolition. As a matter of feeling and sentiment, I know for certain it will cause very great dissatisfaction in the colony, and I can see no good result from the enforcement of the order, but on the contrary I think a change enforced might give rise to trouble and will certainly cause general ill-feeling. They are proud of their flag, and their pride in my opinion should be encouraged not dampened."
1891 Dec 12On the recommendation of Sir Charles Tupper, the Governor General, Lord Stanley, wrote to the Colonial Secretary to request that the Canadian Red Ensign be permitted for Canadian merchantmen. The text is significant for its reference to not only the ensign's use at sea but also on land: "It has been one of the objects of the Dominion, as of Imperial policy, to emphasise the fact that, by Confederation, Canada became not a mere assemblage of Provinces, but one united Dominion, and though no actual order has ever been issued the Dominion government has encouraged, by precept and example, the use on all public buildings throughout the provinces, of the red ensign with the Canadian badge in the fly. Of course it may be replied that no restriction exists with respect to flags which may be hoisted on shore, but I submit that the flag is one which has come to be considered as the recognized flag of the dominion, both ashore and afloat, and on sentimental grounds, I think there is much to said for its retention, as it expresses at once the unity of the several Provinces of the identity of their flag with the colours hoisted by the ships of the mother country." He added that the enforcement of the present order "would be attended with an amount of unpopularity very disproportionate to the occasion." His implied request for use on land was beyond the power of the Admiralty, but the use on merchantman was authorized (below).
1892 Feb 2British Admiralty finally relented and authorized "the red ensign of Her Majesty's fleet with the Canadian coat of arms in the fly, to be used on board vessels registered in the Dominion."
1896 Sep 16British Columbia is given a Great Seal that showed a shield very similar to the arms granted in 1906, except that the sunset was in the chief and the Union Flag at the bottom. This shield, with a face added to the sun, will appear on Chadwick's écu and ensigns derived from it.
1898 Jun 13The Yukon is created a territory.
1901Victoria dies and Edward VII succeeds to the thrown. The St. Edward's crown on the flag of the Governor General was probably changed to the Imperial Crown at this time. Certainly, the crown on the seven-province ensigns did change about this time.
1902 SepAbbot Ephège Filiatreault hoisted his Carillon flag on his presbytery of St. Jude at Saint-Hyacinthe.
1903Chadwick is believed to have proposed his écu complet early in this year. All or portions of it continued to appear on ensigns and bric-a-brac for the next half dozen years.
1903Members of a study committee added the sacred heart to make the Carillon-Sacré-Coeur.
1904 Mar 17Henri Bourassa, M.P. Labelle, complains in parliament that the Canadian Red Ensign has been removed from the Peace Tower and replaced with the Union Flag. James Sutherland, Minister of Public Works that the Canadian Red Ensign is only for merchantmen and "is not the national flag in any other sense. The national flag ... is the Union Jack."
1904 May 18The Terra Nova ensign approved for Newfoundland.
1905 May 10Manitoba is granted arms.
1905 May 30Prince Edward Island is granted arms.
1905 Sep 1Alberta and Saskatchewan join confederation so a nine-province ensign is now possible. However, as each is yet to be granted arms, patterns from Chadwick's Ecu complet often are used as a substitute. The Northwest Territories is created with its present boundaries at this time.
1906 Mar 31British Columbia is granted arms and the right to bare those arms on flags and banners. Although occasional use was made of the shield as a badge on a red ensign, it was not until 1960 June 30 that an official flag was adopted.
1906 Aug 25Saskatchewan is granted arms.
1907 May 30A correct nine-province ensign possible now for Alberta was granted arms on this date.
1909 Apr 1Newfoundland's tricolour planted about 60 miles from the North Pole by Captain Robert Bartlett. (This is unsubstantiated.)
1910 May 4The Royal Canadian Navy is formed.
1911 Apr 12The Colonial Secretary in London assures Canada that the Union Flag is its official flag and that there is no question of authorizing the Canadian Red Ensign for anything other than as a merchant flag.
1911 Dec 16The use of the white ensign, and the blue ensign as a jack, approved for the R.C.N. as follows: "All ships and vessels of the Royal Canadian Navy shall fly at the stern the White Ensign as the symbol of the authority of the Crown, and at the Jack Staff the distinctive flag of the Dominion of Canada, such distinctive flag being the Blue Ensign with the arms of the Dominion insert in the fly. The White Pendant will be flown at the Masthead." (Canadian Order-in-Council PC2843)
1911The flag of the British Empire is proposed and marketed widely. Although it was never officially accepted, it remained in use by the public until after W.W. II.
1915The maple leaf was included in the badge of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.
1920 Feb 18The Canadian Air Force was authorized by an order-in- council.
1921 Oct 22The R.A.F. ensign is approved for use by the C.A.F. as follows: "The Air Council are most happy to accede to the request that the Canadian Air Force be granted permission to use, without 'difference', the ensign of the Royal Air Force." (Letter from Winston S. Churchill to the Governor General.) The ensign was first raised at Camp Borden the following Nov 30.
1921 Nov 21Canada is granted a Coat of Arms by George V. This causes changes in the flag of the Governor General and, in 1922, the Canadian ensigns.
1922 Apr 26The new arms of Canada are authorized to be placed on ensigns.
1924 Jan 26Canadian Red Ensign authorized by an Order in Council to be displayed abroad upon Canadian government buildings.
1924 Apr 1Royal Canadian Air Force is formed from the Canadian Air Force. It continued to use the R.A.F. ensign until 1940.
1928 Jan 1Newfoundland reestablishes its 1638 arms. On 1925 February 18 the College of Arms confirmed the existence of the 1638 arms, it having been asked about them late in 1924. Thereafter the full achievement sometimes appears as a badge on ensigns.
1929 Jan 19Nova Scotia is granted right to use the shield of its original (1625) arms as the basis of its flag.
1929 May 26Nova Scotia's original arms (1625) are reinstated while the ones granted in 1868 are rescinded.
1931 Feb 25Governor General's flag altered to show Royal Crest on a royal blue field above a scroll bearing the word "CANADA."
1931 May 15Newfoundland obtains the status of a dominion and adopts the Union Flag as its official flag.
1931 Dec 12The Statute of Westminster gives independence to both Canada and Newfoundland.
1934Financial problems force Newfoundland to return to colonial status.
1937 May 12The Standard of Canada is carried in the Coronation parade of George VI.
1939 Dec 7Battle flag of Canada approved by War Cabinet.
1939 Dec 9Arms modified in the chief. (But change not inserted on LG flag)
1939 Dec 9Quebec amends its arms to contain three golden fleur-de-lis on a blue field in the chief.
1940 Jul 5RCAF flag is given Royal assent.
1943 Nov 10RCAF orders all units to fly the Canadian Red Ensign along with the RCAF Ensign.
1944 Jan 22The Canadian Army orders all units to fly the Canadian Red Ensign.
1945 Sep 5Union Flag removed from Peace Tower and the Canadian Red Ensign restored. The use of the Ensign is extended to Government buildings inside Canada until Parliament should adopt a national flag.
1948 Jan 21Quebec adopts the fleurdelise flag by order of the lieutenant-governor in Council and by a Provincial Act assented to on 1950 March 9.
1949 Mar 31Newfoundland becomes Canada's tenth province.
1950 Mar 9Quebec flag assented to by an Act of the Legislature.
1950?Lieutenant Governor adopts the white disk and blue field for both government house and the car.
1952Quebec adopts a flag for its lieutenant-governor that displays its Royal Arms in a white roundel on a blue field.
1953 Jun 2The Standard of Canada carried in Queen Elizabeth II's Coronation procession.
1953Presumably the crown on the L-G's flag changed shortly after this.
1955The Anglican Church of Canada adopts a flag.
1956 Feb 24The Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories are each granted arms.
1957 Oct 8Canada's Coat of Arms is amended: the woman's torso on the harp is changed to the old celtic harp and the maple leaves are changed from green to red.
1960 May 30Canada's Naval Board flag, in use since the early 1930's, was last worn for the commissioning of HMCS Nipigon on this date. The Naval Board was dissolved in August 1960.
1960 Jun 30British Columbia adopts its flag.
1962 Aug 15Queen Elizabeth's personal flag for Canada is introduced.
1964 Mar 24Prince Edward Island adopts its flag.
1964 Dec 15Parliament approves the new Canadian flag in the early morning hours. The Senate approved it on the afternoon of Dec 17.
1964 Dec 18Parliament approves the continued use of the Union Flag as a symbol of Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and of her allegiance to the Crown.
1965 Jan 28Queen Elizabeth signs the flag proclamation (to become effective Feb 15) at 5:00 p.m. G.M.T. in the presence of P.M. Pearson.
1965 Feb 15Maple Leaf Flag becomes the national flag and is raised across the county. It is raised on a special flag pole erected just to the east of the Peace Tower at noon. It was not raised on the Peace Tower itself at this time, for, while the Governor General (Vanier) was present, his flag flew there.
1965 Feb 24New Brunswick adopts its flag.
1965 May 21Ontario's flag is adopted, having been given Royal Assent on 1965 April 14.
1966 May 12Manitoba adopts its flag which had been given Royal Assent in 1965 Oct.
1967 AugThe Queen approves badge of Canadian Armed Forces.
1967 Dec 1The flag of the Yukon Territory was adopted.
1967The Canadian Centennial flag in use.
1967The EXPO flag
1968 Feb 1The Army, RCN and RCAF form a combined service.
1968 Apr 13New Canadian Forces Ensign and Naval Jack come into use.
1968 Jun 1Alberta's flag is proclaimed in force, having been given Royal Assent on 1968 May 1.
1969 Jan 1The flag of the Northwest Territories is adopted.
1969 Sep 22Saskatchewan's flag, which had been adopted by the Legislative Assembly on 1969 March 31, is officially dedicated.
1970The Hudson's Bay Company discontinues the use of the HBC red ensign except at historic sites.
1979 Jun 9The Canadian Forces Auxiliary Vessels Jack comes into use.
1980 Jun 24Newfoundland hoists Pratt's design as provincial flag. It had been approved by the Legislative Assembly on 1980 May 28.
1981 Jun 27Ontario's new flag for its lieutenant-governor is approved.
1981 Sep 22New Brunswick's new flag for its lieutenant-governor is approved.
1981 Sep 28Alberta and Saskatchewan each adopts the new pattern for their lieutenant-governor's flag.
1981 Nov 18Prince Edward Island's new flag for its lieutenant-governor is approved.
1981 Feb 23The new Governor General's flag is approved by the Queen.
1981In the name of the Queen, and upon the request of individual provincial governments, the governor general approves new flags for lieutenant-governors. The new flag has the shield of the arms of the province surrounded by a circlet of ten gold stylized maple leaves, all on a royal blue field. Within three years all provinces except Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Quebec have adopted the new pattern. Quebec had already adopted a somewhat similar pattern in 1952.
1982 Feb 1British Columbia's new flag for its lieutenant-governor is approved.
1984 Apr 1New Air Command flag approved.
1984 May 11Manitoba's new flag for its lieutenant-governor is approved.
1985Although land forces of the Canadian Armed Forces continue to use the Canadian Forces Ensign, by this time some naval forces have begun to fly the Canadian Naval Jack, and the Air Command Ensign is being flown alone at air bases.
1985 Jul 1For the Canadian Forces, new uniforms are introduced which distinguish between the air, sea, and land personnel.


Granted or
changed arms
Adopted or
changed flag
CANADA 1921 Nov 21
1957 Oct 8
1965 Feb 15
British Columbia 1871 Jun 20 1906 Mar 31
1987 Sep
1960 Jun 22
Alberta 1905 Sep 1* 1907 May 30 1968
Saskatchewan 1905 Sep 1* 1906 Aug 25 1969
Manitoba 1870 Jul 15 1905 May 10 1965 May 11
Ontario 1867 Jul 1 1868 May 26 1965 May 21
Quebec 1867 Jul 1 1868 May 26 1948 Jan 21
Prince Edward Island 1873 Jul 1 1905 May 30 1964 Mar 24
New Brunswick 1867 Jul 1 1868 May 26
1984 Sep 2?
1964 Mar 24
Nova Scotia 1867 Jul 1 before 1625
1868 May 26
1929 Jan 19
Newfoundland 1949 Mar 31 1637/8 Jan 1
1925 Feb 18
1931 May 15
1980 Jun 24
Yukon Territory 1898 Jun 13* 1956 Feb 24 1967
Northwest Territories 1905 Sep 1* 1956 Feb 24 1969 Jan 1

* As political entities, these regions did not actually join Confederation, on these dates they were created out of land which was already Canadian.

This is the Glossary from the book, The Flags of Canada, by Alistair B. Fraser.
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Alistair B. Fraser |